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Effect of Deutrium-Depleted Water on Normal Human Skin Cells in culture and 3D Skin Equivalent

Authors: ShanShan JIANG, Hui LI, DanDan JIANG, FengSong CONG, Morgan DOS SANTOS
Introduction:
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms on earth. Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen, in which the presence of a neutron in the nucleus doubles the mass of the hydrogen atom.[1] In nature, the ratio between deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) is about 1:6600, which means that the natural concentration of D is about 150 ppm (equivalent to a ratio of 0.015%).[2]
Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) or light water, the opposite of heavy water, is microbiologically pure water characterized by a deuterium concentration of 20 – 130 ppm in contrast to a concentration of 140 - 150 ppm in normal water content. Variations occur as depending on the geographical zone and altitude. The amount of deuterium varies from 90 ppm in melted Antarctic ice to 180 ppm in underground water below the Sahara Desert
It was first reported in 1993 that reduced deuterium concentration in water affects living organisms. And deuterium is now thought to play an important role in the progression of disease and aging. A link between aging and deuterium is well established. D2O concentrations exceeding the natural level resulted in numerous adverse effects: (a) increased viral mutation rates; (b) deuterated enzymes exhibited conformational changes, affecting their active sites; (c) the skin became enriched in deuterium along a temporal aging axis; (d) reduced the lifespan of mice. According to clinical work conducted in Eastern Europe, Japan and Russia, even a seemingly small reduction in deuterium content can influence a number of health parameters.
Although mainstream research focused primarily on the effects of deuterated water in organisms, investigations about DDW is scarce. Recent studies unveiled its important role in the regulation of aging by modulating cell growth and other key biochemical processes.

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